Spirits, Stills, and Temperance: Tracing the History of Alcohol in Shenandoah County

Tour curated by: Shenandoah County Library

Alcohol has been a part of Shenandoah County's history since the arrival of Europeans in the late 18th century.

During these years transporting raw agricultural products to market was incredibly difficult, risky, and expensive. However, distilling crops and selling the alcohol was much easier and more profitable. This, combined with a strong tradition of alcohol production among immigrants, led to the construction of stills on almost every county farm. The demand for spirits was so strong that in 1810 Shenandoah County was producing over 92,000 gallons of alcohol.

In addition to this domestic production this influx of individuals, and travelers moving to other areas along what became known as the Valley Turnpike, facilitated a building boom of taverns and ordinaries in Shenandoah County. These sites provided hot meals, beds, and a strong drink to visitors and residents alike. Between 1795 and 1891 the county issued 176 licenses for these types of businesses.

Toward the end of the 19th century the Temperance movement was growing in Shenandoah County. Many individuals, including some county residents, blamed alcohol for many of society's ills including domestic violence, poverty, and unemployment. To reduce its use and to better their communities they pushed to ban the production and sale of spirits. A 1904 article in the Shenandoah Herald reported every community in Shenandoah County excluding Woodstock and New Market had gone dry.

In 1906 New Market and the Lee District communities had outlawed alcohol. Woodstock followed suite in 1907 after a referendum was held where the “dry” supporters won by a single vote. The rest of the county would follow suit soon afterwards and in 1914 Virginia as a whole outlawed alcohol.

However, enforcing this law proved to be very difficult. Hundreds of individuals were charged with prohibition related laws each year. During the 1920s this number often exceeded 1000 people. At the same time the number of drinkers remained fairly stable.

This convinced many that prohibition was a failure. In 1933 alcohol was again legalized on the Federal level. Over the next several decades the various regulations the county placed on alcohol production and sales were also eliminated.

Today businesses related to alcohol production and sale, including wineries, breweries, distilleries, restaurants, and state run ABC liquor stores are profitable and booming portions of the county's economy.

This tour examines the extensive and often complicated history of sites related to alcohol in Shenandoah County. The tour includes places that sold and made spirits, even some that did so illegally. It also includes sites related to temperance and regulation.

Feel free to explore and to share with us any stories and sites you have related to spirits, stills, and temperance in Shenandoah County.

Locations for Tour

In 1875 Mike Geary purchased this site and opened Geary's Hotel here. What existed here before that is unknown, but we do know one of the hotel's major attractions was its bar which was located on the north end of the building. On October…

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified Gasher Branner had sold 32 gallons of whiskey to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution.

In May 1778 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license to Frederick Woolford to keep an ordinary and to sell spirits in the Town of Woodstock. The exact location and dates which this ordinary operated are unknown.

A well-known tavern and stage shop was built on this site sometime before 1835. Originally it was known as Welch's Tavern. It served travelers passing through Woodstock on what became the Valley Turnpike. During the antebellum period it…

On September 2, 1915 the Shenandoah Herald reported Franklin Frye had been arrested by the US Revenue Department after their agents found an illegal still and 75 gallons of whiskey at his home five miles west of Mt. Jackson. The excat dates when the…

John Evans of Edinburg Virginia was issued a license to operate a a tavern in 1795. The location and exact dates when this tavern were operated is unknown.

According to a History of Edinburg Virginia, a distillery was operated in town. The location and dates of operation are unknown.

On March 9, 1923 the Shenandoah Herald reported a gallon of liquor, a still, and a barrel and a half of mash were found on his property by local and Federal law enforcement officers. The exact location of this still is unknown.

In 1891 E.F. Johnson of Edinburg was granted a license to sell, but not to consume, up to five gallons of spirits at his home.

The 1885 Lake's Atlas of Shenandoah County notes an "old" distillery was located at this site in Shenandoah County's Johnston District. Nothing else is known about this business.

The 1885 Lake's Atlas of Shenandoah County notes a distillery was located at this site in Shenandoah County's Stonewall District. Nothing else is known about this business.

The 1885 Lake's Atlas of Shenandoah County notes a distillery was located at this site in Shenandoah County's Davis District. Nothing else is known about this business.

According to the Shenandoah Gazateer and Geography Supplement, Doris Proctor operated a saloon in Mt. Jackson Virginia.

Deary’s Tavern opened on this site in 1806. Lewis Summers, an early traveler through the area, noted it was a “very good house” after staying there in 1808. It was demolished around 1876 to make way for the Central Hotel. The names of the…

Daniel Munch was a well known producer of apple brandy and other spirits in Fort Valley during the antebellum period. After his passing, Daniel's son Addison became a producer. They sold spirits throughout the county and manufactured them at…

Sometime around 1825 David Crabill built this tavern south of what is now Maurertown Virginia to serve travelers on what would become the Valley Turnpike. Crabill would have provided them food, a hot bed, and spirits of their choosing. The tavern,…

On March 9, 1923 the Shenandoah Herald reported a group of Federal, State, and Local law enforcement officers had raided Clarence Shiflett's home and found a forty gallon still and a large quantity of mash. Shiflett lived in Fort Valley but the…

On May 28, 1778 the Shenandoah County Court issued Christopher Tosh a license to keep an ordinary and to sell spirits. The dates which this ordinary operated and its location are unknown.

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified Chritian Rife sold 30 gallons of whiskey he produced to the government which was used to support the American Revolution. Where Rife produced the alcohol is unknown.

On April 10, 1924 the Daily News Record reported of Harrisonburg Virginia was arrested for being part of a group that illegally transported or “ran” whiskey from Shenandoah County. The paper noted he had been caught with 30 gallons of whiskey in…

On May 13 1924 the Woodstock Times reported Charles F. Turner was found with a quantity of liquor at his home. It was unknown who produced the spirits.

Around 1876 the Central Hotel was built on this site, replacing Deary’s Tavern which had operated here since 1806. On October 8, 1879 an advertisement for the Hotel noted “the Bar [is] supplied with choise liquors” and lists Sarah Holtzman as…

In 1999 Ron Schmidt founded this "boutique farm and vineyard." Its Cabernet Franc and Chardonnary wines were first produced in 2008. In 2010 they were awarded the Virginia Governor's Cup competition's bronze metal. Today they…

In 2005 Randy and Karen Phillips opened the Cave Ridge Vineyard on Conicville Road. The site contains a tasting room and kitchen with a selection of 9 wines, many of which were produced with grapes from the site.

During the early 1800s this site was home to "Bucks Tavern" which provided spirits and a place to stay to travelers along what is now Route 11. During the later half of the 19th century the Shenandoah Hotel opened here, complete with a full…

Brady's Place was a store and social center located along the Orkney Grade between Mt. Jackson and Mt. Clifton. It housed several pool tables and regularly sold alcohol. Community history reports he typically dispensed the alcohol out of his…

On April 14, 1880 the Shenandoah Herald reported that B.F. Myers of Mt. Jackson had been granted a license to keep an ordinary and retail liquor store in that town. The exact location of this establishment and dates when it operated are unknown.

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified that Ann Muhlenberg had sold 70 gallons of brandy to the Patriot cause during the American Revolution. This product may have been produced at her home in Woodstock or at the Glebe Farm, now the…

On November 24 1772 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license to Adam Holker to keep an ordinary that would serve spirits. The location and dates when this ordinary operated are unknown.

The Shenandoah Herald reported that on October 21st 1892 that Adam Barb of near Orkney Springs had been arrested and brought before Federal officials for making alcohol. According to the article he was a "well known distiller." The exact…

On November 2, 1796 Abraham Savage was found guilty on charges of having illegally sold spirits and having an unlawful Gold and Silver Table. The location of this establishment is unknown.

On August 30, 1783 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license to Abraham Savage to keep a Tavern in his house in the Town of Woodstock. The exact dates of operation for this establishment are unknown.

In September of 1778 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license to Abraham Bird "Gentleman" to keep an ordinary that sold, among other things, alcohol. He must have produced a portion of the spirits he sold since on August 29, 1782 the…

Sometime during the first decades of the 20th century, this rubble style building was constructed overlooking the Shenandoah River just south of what of “Narrow Passage.” The early history of this site is not well known. Some accounts indicate…

In 1898 an Edinburg City Directory noted the Eureka House stood on this site. It was the town’s only hotel and was primarily designed to serve travelers on the adjacent rail line. J.F. Holtzman owned the structured and leased it to W.F. Whitman and…

On August 29 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified that Henry Funk sold 34 gallons of brandy to the American Revolutionary forces to support the Patriot cause.

On August 19, 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Harrison Narcross was arrested for having a still and illegal alcohol. Law enforcement officers found the still, cap, and worm along with five pints of moonshine at his…

On September 16, 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Grove Price had been arraigned after law enforcement officers had found a still and one half gallon of liquor at his residence. The location of this still and the exact…

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified George Underwood had sold 11 gallons of whiskey to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution.

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified George Huddle (Hottel) sold 66 gallons of whiskey to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution. Additional research provided by the Hottel-Keller Memorial Association indicates…

On August 29 1782 the Shenandoah County Court George Bird sold 52 gallons of whiskey to support the Patriot cause during the American Revolution.

On April 14 1880 the Shenandoah Herald reported that J.H. Smurr had been granted a license to keep an ordinary and retail liquor store in Orkney Springs. Smurr continued his business through at least 1885 when he is listed on the Lake's Atlas…

On April 14 1880 the Shenandoah Herald reported Israel Halterman had been granted a license to keep an ordinary and retail liquor store in Mt. Clifton Virginia. The exact location of this site and when it operated is unknown.

Built in 1836 the Central Hotel was designed to serve individuals travelling on the Valley Turnpike. Providing spirits would have been part of its mission from the beginning. Who the early operators of the site where is unknown, but in the 1880s…

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified L. Snapp had sold 100 gallons of his whiskey to the government to benefit the revolutionary cause.

Store owner's Don and Laurie Kadel displayed a still at the King's Crossing Store starting in the 1960s. This item was a popular among store patrons. In 1974 it attracted the attention of the Virginia ABC Board who raided the store and…

In 1905 Joseph W. Gochenour in Fort Valley Virginia advertised in the Shenandoah Herald that he was selling his distillery. He described the operation as having "two good copper stills, caps, and worms, capacity 105 and 110 gallons, about 85…

On April 14 1880 the Shenandoah Herald reported Joseph F. Holtzman of Edinburg had been issued a license to be a wholesale liquor dealer. In the 1885 Lake's Atlas of Shenandoah County he advertised himself as a liquor dealer. When the business…

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified John Moore had sold 62 gallons of whiskey he produced to the government in support of the American revolution.

On November 23, 1773 John McDonald was indicted by the Shenandoah County Court for illegally selling spirits without a license.

In 1787 John Effinger was granted a license to operate a Tavern in the Town of Woodstock. The exact location and date in which the tavern operated is unknown.

On August 30 1783 John Crookshanks was granted a license to keep a tavern in his home in the Town of Woodstock. The exact location of that tavern and when it operated is unknown.

On November 27 1817 John Brenner was issued a license by the county court to operate a still. The license reported the still could produce 67 gallons and Brenner was authorized by that specific license to produce spirits for up to two weeks. This…

On August 28, 1783 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license to John Anderson to keep an ordinary and to sell spirits. The location of this ordinary is unknown.

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified Jeremiah McKoy sold 64 gallons of whiskey to the government to support the revolutionary cause.

On October 28, 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Sheriff Borden searched J.D. Rush's home in the Palmyra section of the county and found moonshine and mash for making moonshine, but no still. J.D. Claimed it…

On May 1, 1930 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported that A. Mike Neff had been shot by Sheriff Luther G. Sheetz while fleeing from his still during a raid the preceding Sunday. According to the report Neff and two other men…

On August 29, 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified Martin Nall sold 60 and 1/4th gallons of his whiskey to the government in support of the revolutionary cause. Where his home was located is unknown.

M.S. Grove operated an Ordinary in Edinburg on the road leading to the depot. The exact location and time period when this business operated is unknown.

On May 10 1927 the Shenandoah Herald reported that Deputy Sheriff McKinley Ryman arrested, with the help of Mik Neff, Layman Habron on violation of prohibition laws. While working with law enforcement Neff had gone to Habron's home where he had…

On August 15, 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Deputy Sheriff Raymand and Federal Agent Dirting arrested Lawrence Hammond after finding a still, fifteen gallons of whiskey, and two barrels of mash at his home near Top…

On March 29, 1849 an advertisement appeared in Woodstock's Tenth Legion newspaper announcing the sale of Lawerence Pitman's "well known" tavern stand near Red Banks. Nothing else is known about this business.

On August 30 1783 Phillip Huffman was granted a license by Shenandoah County to keep an ordinary and to sell spirits. The location of this business and when it operated is unknown.

This mill was built sometime around 1797 by the Spangler family who were some of the first Europeans to immigrate to the Strasburg area. It was designed with a wooden end since that material could absorb the vibrations associated with the mill wheel…

This structure was built around 1755 and was the home of the Hupp family who were some of the earliest European immigrants into the Shenandoah Valley. It was built to provide protection from possible Native American incursions and other hostile…

The Vines here were planted in 1982. It produces Chambourcin, Chardonnay, and Vidal Blanc wines and is home to Shenandoah Valley Hops.

Neeb's Tavern was located inside Neeb's Exchange Hotel across from the Courthouse in Woodstock Virginia. It opened during the antebellum period. The exchange was still in operation during the Civil War when it was included on drawing…

On May 28 1778 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license for Nancy Hazelton (widow) to keep an ordinary. The location of this ordinary and when it operated is unknown.

In 2003 Robert and Sally Cowal opened Muse Vineyards east of Woodstock Virginia. The vineyard includes 20 acres of vines that Starting in 2009 their grapes varieties produce a Chardonnay, Roussanne, Bordeaux, and Rhone variants. A tasting room is…

On April 13, 1894 the Shenandoah Herald reported JM Ludwig of Edinburg applied for a license to operate a bar room and to sell retail liquors. The location of this bar and when it operated is unknown.

According to the History of Edinburg, Mary (Sallie) Murray operated an ordinary in Edinburg. The date when this ordinary operated and where it was located is unknown.

Along with most other county towns, Mt. Jackson had an active Council of Temperance during the late 19th and early 20th century. The group promoted restrictions on the sale of alcohol, in some cases including a complete ban. One of the earliest…

On March 17, 1964 the Mt. Jackson Town Council certified a petition from its citizens asking the state ABC Board to construct a liquor store in the town. On August 11th of that year the board approved the request, noting a referendum was not needed…

On August 15 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Sheriff Borden and deputies Bly and Goode found five gallons of mash on Mrs. Frank Fisher's property in Strasburg. According to reports, she would get drunk inside her…

On September 19 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Montgomery "Gummer" Click was sentenced to five years in the penitentiary for operating and still and for forcing his step son to help him distill liquor.…

On March 9, 1923 the Shenandoah Herald reported law enforcement agents raided the Fort Valley home of Mont Woodrow and found a "fully equipped still" with two and one half gallons of moonshine. Where exactly this still was located and when…

In April 1965 Russell Henry Clem of Fort Valley was charged by the Virginia ABC Board for having "possession of alcoholic beverage, tax not paid..." and for "keeping, storing, and having in his possession...distilling apparatus."…

On April 14, 1880 the Shenandoah Herald newspaper reported Robert Wilson of Mt. Jackson Virginia had been granted a license to keep and ordinary and retail liquor store in Mt. Jackson Virginia. The exact location of the business and when it operated…

On May 27, 1877 this church was dedicated by the local Christian (Disciples of Christ) congregation. Locally it was known as the Campebllite Church in reference to Alexander Campbell who helped found the Disciples of Christ denomination. This…

On October 5, 1837 an advertisement in the Woodstock Sentinal newspaper announced S.M.B. Stewart of Mt. Jackson was selling his tavern on Main Street in that community. The sale bill reported it was a "large and commodious" public house…

On April 14, 188- the Shenandoah Herald reported S.M. Holtzman had been granted a license to keep an rodinary and retail liquor store in New Market Virginia. While the exact location of this business is unknown, it may be related to the Central Hotel…

On August 29 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified Sebastian Hickler had sold 33 gallons of his whiskey to the government in support of the revolutionary cause.

In 1772 the Shenandoah County Court issued a license for Samuel Smith to keep an ordinary and to sell ardent spirits. A license was also issued in May of 1778. Where this ordinary was located and the exact date when it operated is unknown.

On May 20 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported Sylvanus Moomaw had been convicted on charges of keeping a still in his home and selling illegal alcohol. Where the still was located and the exact date when it operated is…

In 1998 Lynn and David St. Clair moved from Northern Virginia to the area to take over her grandfather's century farm. Originally they managed pick your own fruit and vegetable plots, but in 2013 they planted their first batch of hops. In 2014…

In 1823 James N. Swann was issued a license to operate a tavern in what is now Edinburg Virginia. Later, this license was transferred to Isaac Rutter who retained the name Swanns Tavern. The exact location of this tavern is unknown.

On December 12, 1963 the Shenandoah Herald reported on a case where Galen E. Stickley of Edinburg was convicted of possessing moonshine produced in the Ridge Hollow area of Shenandoah County by an unknown person(s). He was fined $150 and sentenced to…

This tavern opened in Woodstock sometime during the early 19th century. It served many travelers along the Valley Turnpike. Locals observed this was one of the rougher taverns in town and "many a brawl" occurred here. It was open through…

In 1795 Jacob Shyrock was issued a license for a tavern in what is today Edinburg Virginia. It operated near Stoney Creek. This tavern was one of the community's original businesses and for a time the area was known as Shyrock.

In 1976 Jim and Emma Randel established Shenandoah Vineyards on her family's farm. It was only the 5th winery established in Virginia during modern times and is the second oldest still in operation. Today, Shenandoah Vineyards includes 15…

Sometime during the 1920s Riverside Team Room, located at Red Banks between Edinburg and Mt. Jackson, produced this menu for patrons. Originally it stood on the west side of US 11. Riverside Tea Room was first opened between 1920 and 1925 by Arline…

On September 26, 1924 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported William L. Click of Conicville was shot by Deputy Sheriff McKinley Ryman as he was attempting to escape after Ryman found his still. Ryman was Click's neighbor.…

On April 14 1880 the Shenandoah Herald reported W.H. Baker was was granted a license to keep an ordinary and retail liquor store in New Market Virginia. In the 1885's Lake Atlas of Shenandoah and Page Counties this business is listed as the…

Wine production at this site near Quicksburg began in 2014. Ed and Wendy De Mello currently manage six acres of vines and a tasting room which opened in 2015.

In 2005 Amy and Bruce Helsley purchased a horse farm at this site. Three years later they planted their first vines and opened a winery in 2011. Their 58 acres contain a variety of grapes and apples while their tasting room provides visitors the…

Sometime in the 1880s Lin Irwin's Drug Store opened on the first floor of the Irwin Opera House located at the corner of Main and Court Street in Woodstock. In 1906 Clyde E. Walton and Dr. James H. Smoot purchased the drug store and changed…

In 1886 a group of local businessmen, farmers, and community leaders banded together to form the Shenandoah County Agricultural Society. This organization was designed to promote the area’s agricultural, commercial, and industrial products to…

The Shenvalee began in 1926 when Roland F. Hill came to New Market and purchased what was then called the “Dr. Strayer Farm.” Hill would use the land to create a resort hotel and golf course. Local newspaper publisher John G. Miller would…

In 1891 William H. Reeser was licensed to sell up to five gallons of spirits in Edinburg Virginia. These could not be consumed on site. The exact location of his business and where it operated is unknown.

Court records from 1874 indicate William Dinges was granted a license to operate an ordinary and to sell spirits in Edinburg. The 1870 Gray's Atlas of the Town of Edinburg shows that his business was operating that year almost directly behind…

On May 12 1893 the Shenandoah Herald reported L.H. Knighton of Mt. Jackson had been granted licenses to operate an ordinary and to sell retail liquor at the Willard House which he operated. The exact location of the Willard House and when it operated…

In 1806 William Woods built this house on Congress Street in New Market. Four years later Wise Tavern was opened in part of the house. How long it was operated is unknown.

On April 19 1907 The Shenandoah Herald reported that Wilson Zeigler was fined $25 for selling liquor in Maurertown without a license. The exact location from which he sold alcohol and when he operated is unknown.

On August 29 1782 the Shenandoah County Court certified that William Hoover sold 11 and 1/2 gallons of his whiskey to the government in support of the revolutionary cause. The site of his home and where he made the whiskey is unknown.

Located on the corner of Queen and Holliday Streets, the Hotel Strasburg is one of the most elegant and attractive lodging sites in Shenandoah County. This was not the first building on this site. In 1782 Christopher Keister Jr. opened an ordinary…

Starting in the 1920s, clothing and textile manufacturing became prominent industries in the Shenandoah Valley. One group that operated in the area was the Casey Jones Work-Clothes Company. They opened plants in Woodstock, Mt. Jackson, Shenandoah,…

In a 1966 referendum the residents of Woodstock voted to allow the Virginia ABC Board to open a liquor store in town. This was the third attempt by residents to get this approval. Two previous referendums, one in 1958 and one in 1962 had failed by 15…

In 2004 Willard and Diane Elledge established a winery on this site. It contains 48 acres of grapes that produce Cabernet Sauvignon, Cabernet France, Chambourcin and Mariage wines. A tasting room also serves visitors.

According to one of its advertisements, the Blue and Gray Tavern, operated by H.M. Dorsley, operated approximately 1/2 miles north of Toms Brook Virginia. Its signature dish appears to have been Virginia Barbecue. The catch line on their printed…

On July 15 1904 The Shenandoah Herald reported Jason C. Foltz was issued a license to distill liquor at his place in Headquaters Virginia. The exact location of his distillery and when it operated is unknown.

Sometime before 1800 Michael Zerkel (Zirkle) established a distillery at his residence near Forestville Virginia. A resident of the area since his arrival in 1755, Zerkel’s decision to distill alcohol was typical. Most farmers of the era produced…

On May 11 1905 New Market's Shenandoah Valley newspaper reported Michael Clary of Alonzaville had been granted a license to distill whiskey. The exact location of his still and when he operated it is unknown.

On September 29 1904 New Market's Shenandoah Valley newspaper reported T.L. Dellinger of Jerome had been granted a license to distill brandy. On May 11 1905 the same paper reported he had been granted a license for that year. The exact location…

On September 29 1904 the Shenandoah Valley newspaper in New Market Virginia reported David A. Dellinger had been granted a license to distill brandy at his home near Conicville Virginia. The following year the Shenandoah Valley reported David A.…

The 1885 Lake's Atlas of Shenandoah and Page Counties notes the "Shenandoah House" stood on this site. It would have served travelers on the Valley Turnpike and from the nearby rail line. Sometime in the last decade of the 19th…

In November of 1903 the Town Council of Edinburg Virginia signed a contract with John Clinedinst for building a new town hall. This structure constructed on land belonging to the local Masons. The first floor of Town Hall was built to accommodate…

On May 25, 1905 the Shenandoah Valley newspaper reported Charles E. Headly had been granted a license to keep an ordinary in Orkney Springs. The exact location of this business is unknown.

On January 16, 1925 the Woodstock Times and Edinburg Sentinel Combined reported that Hamburg resident and carpenter Clarence W. Parks, aged 58, had been convicted of having a still and liquor on his property. He was sentenced to three months in jail…

In 1807 John Strayer constructed the front portion of this building at the corner of the Valley Pike and what was then the Sperryville Turnpike. The structure held both his home and mercantile business that sold hardware, clothing, and paint.…

Sometime in the late 19th century Captain T. J. Adams operated a general store in Quicksburg Virginia. He died in 1904 and Clarence Lafayette Zirkle bought the business. Zirkle would have sold a wide array of items ranging from dry goods to farm…